Measuring method for function and quality of automated lateral control based on high-precision digital ”Ground Truth” maps

Abstract

Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) of longitudinal control are widely used. In contrast to longitudinal controls, lateral controls are a growing market since this technique plays a major role in the successful introduction of automated driving. Customer and benchmark studies conducted by the University of Applied Sciences Kempten and Consline AG have clearly shown that the vehicle behavior and customer experiences such as tracking performance, driver-vehicle interaction, availability, degree of stress, and the sense of security of today’s lane-keeping assistance systems are consistently rated as extremely unsatisfactory. As a consequence, there is a moderate level of trust and low customer acceptance. A new measuring method based on high-precision and accurate digital maps (ground truth) was developed. With this method, analysis of the entire chain of action, from the sensor to tracking is possible. Position, direction, and motion of the vehicle and its reference distance to road markings can be precisely measured in the digital map using a high-precision inertial measurement system (IMU) with RTK-DGPS and SAPOS correction service. The measuring method can be used in particular on public routes since test areas are still insufficient due to the very small tracks and driving maneuver variations for lane-keeping assistance systems. For a precise assessment of the sensor, planning, and control performance as well as the overall driving characteristics, a very precise knowledge of the routes and the route excitation is required. For this purpose, high precision and accurate digital maps (ground truth) of real tracks were generated. A roof-mounted stereo camera system combined with an RTK-DGPS IMU was used to provide offline-generated digital maps with high precision in the OpenDRIVE or OpenStreetMap format, as well as other common simulation formats like IPG CarMaker. In order to be able to carry out the dynamic driving evaluation as well as the simultaneous evaluation of the sensor, planning and control performance in the digital maps in real-time, a route format with a regular grid, based on OpenCRG (Curved Regular Grid), was further developed. An IMU with RTK-DGPS and correction service (e.g. SAPOS) provides in real-time the highly accurate position, direction, and movement of the ego vehicle of up to two centimeters in the lateral and longitudinal direction. In addition, a special measuring steering wheel was built to objectify the driver-vehicle interaction, in particular, the steering torque curve and the tracking. Particular attention was paid to the reuse of the original steering wheel with all functions, such as airbag, operation, and hands-off detection. The novelty is the ability to measure the recognition, planning, and control performance of environmental sensors, algorithms, and controllers compared to the reference ”Ground Truth”. In addition, the driving characteristics of the entire vehicle can be assessed in terms of its tracking performance, driver-vehicle interaction, availability, degree of relieving and a sense of security. Another novelty is the consistent use of digital maps in driving tests as well as in the MIL / SIL / HIL simulation as a digital twin.

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